London’s legendary Marquee Club played a pivotal role in the birth of some of the biggest acts in Rock history. Pink Floyd, Genesis, and Rod Stewart performed there when they were still largely unknown, as did the young singer and saxophonist, David Jones with his band, The Lower Third, and occasionally, with other groups such as The High Numbers, who later found fame as The Who. Jones released a string of singles all of which flopped, and he didn’t enjoy his first significant international hit until 1969 with ‘Space Oddity,’ by which time he was known to all as David Bowie. The debut album by UK-based Rhythm & Blues band, The Yardbirds was recorded at the club during a live appearance in February 1964, just months after they’d recruited a talented yet largely unknown guitarist by the name of Eric Clapton. When he left the group in 1965, he was replaced with Jeff Beck and later, the much sought after session musician, Jimmy Page who, following the departure of the founding members, repackaged the band and staged their debut gig at the venue as The New Yardbirds with a line-up consisting of Page, vocalist Robert Plant, drummer John Bonham, and bassist and keyboardist John Paul Jones. Weeks later, they were renamed, Led Zeppelin. Perhaps most significantly of all, it was the club where a newly formed Blues and Rock & Roll covers band first performed as The Rolling Stones on July 12th 1962. It’s widely documented that the group’s name was born in a rush of desperation. In his 2010 biography, ‘Life,’ Keith Richards recalls the moment founder-member Brian Jones phoned a publication known as ‘Jazz News’ which, “was a kind of ‘who’s playing where’ rag, and said, ‘we’ve got a gig at…’ ‘What do you call yourselves?’ We stared at one another. ‘It?’ Then ‘Thing?’ This call is costing. Muddy Waters to the rescue! First track on ’The Best of Muddy Waters’ is ’Rollin’ Stone.’ The cover is on the floor. ’The Rolling Stones.’ Phew!! That saved sixpence.” Looking back on their landmark appearance at the Marquee, Mick Jagger said last year, “it is quite amazing when you think about it. But it was so long ago. Some of us are still here, but it’s a very different group than the one that played 50 years ago.” Indeed it is. When Jagger, Jones and Richards first performed at the legendary venue, they were joined by Dick Taylor on bass, Ian Stewart on piano, and, depending on who you ask, either Mick Avory or Tony Chapman on drums. Avory himself claims he never gigged with them although in his memoirs, Richards insists otherwise. What is clear is, in early 1963, Charlie Watts took over as drummer and Bill Wyman assumed Taylor‘s place as bass player… and this is the very reason why ‘Conspiro Media’ is publishing it’s three-part Rolling Stones 50th anniversary retrospective in 2013 instead of 2012. As Keith pointed out in a magazine interview not too long ago, “The Stones always really consider ’63 to be 50 years, because Charlie didn’t actually join until January. So we look upon 2012 as sort of the year of conception. But the birth is (the) next year.” 1963 was also the year when former Beatles publicist Andrew Loog Oldham became their manager and removed Ian Stewart from the line-up because his square-jawed features, and old-fashioned dress-sense and haircut didn’t fit in with the youthful image of the rest of the band. He then marketed them as the anti-thesis of The Beatles; the scruffy, long-haired, loutish, trouble-making equivalent of the cleaner-cut, be-suited ‘Fab Four.’ As their fame grew, he encouraged the British Press to run with headlines that would enforce this message, typified most memorably by the quote, “would you let your daughter marry a Rolling Stone?” It hardly mattered what disapproving parents thought of that loaded question, because it didn’t stop thousands of teenage girls packing out concert halls to see them. They weren’t the only band to play in front of screaming, weeping adolescent females during the early part of the 1960s of course, but what they attracted more than any other group of the time was an uncontrollable vibe from the audience that sometimes ended in destruction, after all, it wasn’t unusual to see a riot break out from time to time. This is what reportedly occurred in 1967 during a performance in Austria when a smoke bomb was thrown on stage -154 fans were arrested. In London, Ontario in 1965, the band literally had the plug pulled on them a few minutes into their set by police. It’s said this sparked a fierce backlash from angry fans. A day earlier, The Stones cut their appearance short of their own volition after the crowd lost control during a show in Toronto.
In the video below, Bill Wyman looks back at some old footage taken of the group performing at the Kurhaus concert hall in the Netherlands in 1964 (not “1965” as stated) and which shows audience-members and heavy-handed police clashing violently on stage whilst the band play on close by. As he views the scenes, Wyman recalls that the unruly hordes had “ruined the theatre. The chairs and the chandeliers – they tore the tapestry off the walls. They got us out after about two songs.”
In his book ‘Life,’ Keith Richards remembers one notable riot in the UK seaside town of Blackpool. He writes, “we start the gig, and it’s jam-packed, a lot of guys, a lot of them very, very p****d, all dressed up in their Sunday best. And suddenly while I’m playing, this little red-headed f****r flobs on me. So I move aside, and he follows me and flobs on me again and hits me in the face. So I stand in front of him again and he spits at me again and, with the stage, his head was just about near my shoe, like a penalty shot in football. I just went bang and knocked his f*****g head off, with the grace of Beckham. He’s never walked the same since. And after that, the riot broke out. They smashed everything, including the piano. We didn’t see a piece of equipment that came back any bigger than three inches square with wires hanging out. We got out of there by the skin of our teeth.” As a result, Blackpool’s councillors barred The Stones, finally lifting the ban in 2008. Reflecting on the unruly audiences during those heady times, Keith states, “what they were reacting to was being in this enclosed place with us – this illusion, me, Mick and Brian. The music might be the trigger, but the bullet, nobody knows what that is.” Richards continues, “usually it was harmless, for them, though not always for us. Amongst the many thousands a few did get hurt, and a few died. Some chick third balcony up flung herself off and severely hurt the person she landed on underneath, and she herself broke her neck and died. Now and again s**t happened.” The fact is, death played heavily in the Rolling Stones’ story, and in amongst the usual Rock & Roll pastimes of sex and drugs, there was also a sinister but very real undertone of black magic and Satanism. German singer, Nico, met the band in 1965. Of Brian Jones, she reportedly told a writer, “do you know Brian was a witch? We were interested in these things and he was very deep about it.“ According to the book, ‘Nico, the Life and Lies of an Icon’ by Richard Witts, “she said on another occasion that Jones was keen on the occult but ‘he was like a little boy with a magic set. It was really an excuse for him to be nasty and sexy. He read books by an old English man (Aleister Crowley) who was the Devil. I told Brian that I knew the Devil and the Devil was German!’“ Witts continues, “it was not hard to get engrossed, and like many bored boys of his generation, Brian Jones was fascinated. He read what he could and learned to love the occult’s deviant spirit. Nico, of course was intrigued by the inverse uses of the Christian symbols. There was a visceral thrill to be had from touching on taboos; in such matters Jones and Nico were of like mind and easily led.” Nico was briefly a vocalist with The Velvet Underground, the influential 1960s musical outfit with an illustrious line-up that included John Cale, and also, Lou Reed who wrote one of the band’s best known songs, ‘Venus in Furs,’ which was based on and titled after a novella by 19th century author, Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch. Perhaps his most famous literary work, it depicts people deriving sexual pleasure from pain and humiliation. Not long after it’s publication, the writer‘s name gave rise to the term, ‘Masochism’ in order to describe this form of behaviour that Masoch himself practised in. He’s purported to have lived out passages from the book in real-time and even signed a contract with one of his mistresses which made her a sex slave for a period of six months during which time she was required to wear furs and succumb to his desires. Another of his women whipped him and beat him with her fists at his behest, and he also urged his first wife to regularly thrash him with a cat-o’-nine-tails. Born in 1836, Leopold was a Freemason with an illustrious background. His grandfather, Johann Nepomuk Stephan Ritter von Sacher was appointed to the Austrian Order of Leopold, and elevated to the nobility in April 1818. His mother, Charlotte von Masoch was a Ukrainian noblewoman and when she married into the Sacher family in 1829, the name Masoch was added at the behest of her father as she was the last remaining member of the lineage following her brother’s death. If you’re reading this and wondering what relevance any of this has to The Rolling Stones, then it might interest you to learn that Leopold’s grand-niece, Eva von Sacher-Masoch, Baroness Erisso, was the mother of Marianne Faithfull, someone whose life will be forever linked to the band’s history. She was a 17-year-old convent school girl when she first met the group in 1964 at a party held by Andrew Loog Oldham who not long after, launched her on a successful music career with the Jagger/Richards hit, ‘As Tears Go By.’ At the time, she was involved in a long-term relationship with John Dunbar, who founded the influential Indica Gallery and bookstore in 1965 with author, Barry Miles. It championed the counter-culture art scene that was growing at the time and it became a popular haunt of London’s ‘Swinging Sixties’ set. Paul McCartney and John Lennon were notable devotees, in fact, the classic Beatles track ‘Tomorrow Never Knows’ was inspired by a book that Lennon had read there by Timothy Leary titled, ‘The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead.’ Brian Jones was also reportedly a customer, as was his girlfriend of the time, Anita Pallenberg, an Italian-born model who he first became acquainted with at a Stones gig in 1965. In the book, ‘Led Zeppelin – When Giants Walked the Earth,’ author, Mick Wall writes about a mutual friend of Jones and Pallenberg’s by the name of “Winona,“ who claims the couple spent time at the Indica bookstore, “buying the latest occult tomes, searching for ‘Satanic spells to dispel thunder and lightning.’” Wall states that well renowned Aleister Crowley devotee, Jimmy Page was a regular visitor to Brian’s and Anita’s London flat when he was a member of The Yardbirds and that the Rolling Stone “was into paganism, Zen, Moroccan tapestries… and drugs. Anita was an aspiring film-star and model, into magick, sex, hanging out with Rock stars… and drugs. A small-time crook as a teenager, not only was Brian a gifted and successful musician, he was up for anything. He and Anita would hold séances at the flat using a ouija board; or they would pile in the car and drive off to look for UFOs in the dead of night.” Despite starring in a number of movies, including the sixties sci-fi classic, ‘Barberalla’ as The Great Tyrant, Pallenberg will perhaps always be best remembered for her long-running high-profile role in the story of The Stones.
Marianne Faithfull has reportedly said Anita, “was sort of a dark queen, beautiful and wicked despite her blonde looks. Her smile was not like one you had ever seen before, it seemed to be a camouflage for some great, dark secret she was hoarding. The best way I can describe her is that she was like a snake to a bird and she could transfix you and hold you in place until she wanted to make her move.” Marianne and John Dunbar were married in 1965 but their union was short-lived. After brief sexual dalliances with Brian Jones and Keith Richards, the young beauty eventually left her husband and began a four-year relationship with Mick Jagger in 1966. She too was fascinated in the occult and was briefly involved with the ‘Process Church of the Final Judgement,’ a religious group founded in London in the early 1960s by former Scientologists, Mary and Robert DeGrimston. One of it’s earliest members was Timothy Wyllie who helped create the movement after joining in 1964 when he was a 23-year-old fresh out of architecture school. In a 2009 interview he said, “we did have a very complex belief system. It was rather informal, because as we became more spiritually orientated, we did get in touch with the inner aspects of ourselves, as well as what’s going on in the universe. We were basically in contact with something we call ‘The Beings.’ We didn’t know what they were, but they seemed to be guiding us, and we felt they were responsible for small miracles, like when a fish washed up and we hadn’t eaten for three days. That then developed into a much more formal theology which we incorporated into the Church, and what we had previously regarded as psychological archetypes got turned into a sort of theological framework.” It’s certain aspects within this “framework” that’s attracted a fair amount of suspicion from critics, because it brings together The Christ with Satan. In another interview, Wyllie described the logic behind this idea. He said, “we were working within a Western cosmology if you like, you know. If we had of been in Japan, we might’ve mapped it against a totally different kind of cosmology, but that’s the one we used. But it’s a little more complicated than the Christian thing because we had these three basic archetypes of Jehovah, Lucifer, and Satan and then we saw The Christ aspect as being the unifier, and then the more complicated and more fundamental scenario was, came from the concept of loving your enemy, and, as Robert would say, you know, ‘who was Christ’s enemy? Satan was Christ’s enemy.’ So, the idea was to – through love – uniting the opposites, uniting these different aspects. And of course it was an internal process, an alchemical process of uniting the two aspects of the self.” He has also stated that, “we were going back to the Christian evolution of our prime enemy, where Satan is the prime enemy, and you should love Satan. Not in a sense worshiping, but in a sense of understanding and comprehending. There is polarity in the universe. Everything has polarity, and to demonise the other the way the Christian church has demonised Satan. It’s madness, because by rejecting this aspect, we are harming ourselves because we don’t learn.”
Wyllie was also the art and design director for the Church’s ‘Process Magazine’ which, according to former Blondie bassist-turned-occult researcher and writer Gary Lachman, “favoured Hitler, Satan and gore.” It also featured interviews with famous celebrities of the time. In an article on the website, ‘Fortean Times,’ Lachman states that the magazine was “hawked on the streets of Swinging London, hitting the King’s Road, marching into places like the Indica Bookshop… In the ‘Fear’ issue, (Paul) McCartney revealed that he had no ‘fear of the world ending or anything like that,’ but did fear fear itself. An issue dedicated to ‘Freedom of Expression,’ had Mick Jagger on the cover.” Lachman also writes that Marianne Faithfull featured in the ‘Death’ issue. Wyllie talked of the Rolling Stone and his girlfriend in a 2009 interview. He said, “Mick and Marianne’s attraction was simply that we all liked one another, it was early in their careers so perhaps they were more accessible – no Press agents to fight through. At that point in the mid-’60s most of our generation thought and felt much same in terms of what was wrong with the world. We just gave them an opportunity to speak openly and honestly about how they felt. They were never part of the group.”
In his book, ‘Turn Off Your Mind: The Mystic Sixties and The Dark Side of the Age of Aquarius,’ Lachman quotes Faithfull as saying of The Process, “I was attracted to them at first, mostly because they took me seriously, when nobody else did. They were very admiring of me – they must have recognised that I have got magic powers. Mick told me I had made a mistake and before I went any further a warning bell went off and I backed away. John Michell, the Holy Grail, and flying saucers were okay, but there was something almost like Fascism about The Process.” Indeed, according to Lachman in his ‘Fortean Times’ article, by 1968, the DeGrimstons’ movement, “had spread to the States, establishing churches in New York, Boston, New Orleans, Los Angeles and San Francisco. They also canvassed Europe; in Germany they sent representatives to the neo-Nazi NPD (National Democratic Party). Always in search of intensity, Nazi chic attracted them.” He adds, “in Haight-Ashbury they visited the offices of the ‘San Francisco Oracle,’ hoping to bring the underground newspaper over to the cause. The Oracle was too busy hyping the coming Age of Aquarius to give Satan much time. They paid a visit to the Black Pope, Anton LaVey, head of the ‘Church of Satan,’ but he had no use for them either. They set up a church at 407 Cole Street. Their neighbour at 636 Cole was someone who would cause them a lot of grief in a year or so. His name was Charles Manson, soon to become the head of ‘The Family’ responsible for the gruesome Tate/LaBianca murders in August of 1969. At that time, Charlie was still an ex-con petty thief, strumming a guitar among the debris of the flower children, languishing amidst the ruins of the Summer of Love. By the end of the decade he was one of the most famous people alive, a cause célèbre in the counter-culture, Satan incarnate for The Establishment.“ A number of authors and researchers have claimed Manson was directly involved with The Church, an allegation denied by the DeGrimstons’ inner circle, although it is acknowledged that two Process members visited him in prison after the murders. During this time, he also contributed a piece for the ‘Death’ issue of The Church’s magazine. Timothy Wyllie has attempted to downplay the Family leader’s connection with the publication. In 2009 he said, “a couple of years after Manson had been in prison we were working on a magazine about death, and rather unwisely a couple of us (not me) went to visit and talk to Manson in jail – after all, we innocently reasoned, who’d know more about death? In retrospect, of course it was really stupid, but not out of line with the many stupid things we did. Being so inward looking, I think we were way out of touch with how regular people thought.” The alleged Process connection was examined by the prosecuting attorney in the Tate/LaBianca trial, Vincent Bugliosi. In his 1974 book, ’Helter Skelter,’ he documents his findings, concluding that the supposed links are “tenuous, yet… fascinating.” To illustrate his point, he highlights a number of philosophical ideas and pursuits Manson shared with the Church and the DeGrimstons, including a background in Scientology. He writes, “in July 1961 he was sent to the United States Penitentiary at McNeil Island, Washington. Manson gave as his claimed religion ‘Scientologist,’ stating that he ‘has never settled upon a religious formula for his beliefs and is presently seeking an answer to his question in the new mental health cult known as Scientology.’ Manson’s teacher, i.e., ‘auditor,’ was another convict, Lanier Rayner. Manson would later claim that while in prison he achieved Scientology’s highest level, ‘theta clear.’” Bugliosi also makes note of Manson’s presence in Haight-Ashbury during 1967, living as he did “just two blocks away” from The Process’s San Francisco headquarters and states that it was “very likely” he “at least investigated” the movement during this period claiming “there is fairly persuasive evidence that he ‘borrowed’ some of their teachings,” for example, The Church and the infamous cult leader, “both preached an imminent, violent Armageddon, in which all but the chosen few would be destroyed. Both found the basis for this in the Book of Revelation. Both conceived that the motorcycle gangs, such as Hell’s Angels, would be the troops of The Last Days. And both actively sought to solicit them to their side.” Bugliosi then compares The Process’s belief system that unifies Jehovah, Lucifer, and Satan through Christ, to Manson’s “simpler duality,” claiming that “he was known to his followers as both Satan and Christ.” Furthermore, “within the organisation, The Process was called (at least until 1969) ‘the family,’” adding that, “the symbol of The Process is similar, though not identical, to the swastika Manson carved on his forehead.” The renowned researcher and author, Michael Tsarion offers a contrary view to Bugliosi regarding the choice of tattoo, which he etched into his skin shortly after the Tate/LaBianca killings. At a lecture in Sweden during 2010, he told his audience, “actually, it’s not a swastika, because Charles Manson by his own definition has had nothing whatever to do with Hell’s Angels or hippies, and very adamantly will tell you that he is from an earlier generation and looks at those people as completely clueless… so then, what is the symbol? That is the symbol of The Process Church which was in fact a swastika slightly skewed to look like a Malta Cross, or a Malta Cross slightly skewed to look like a swastika – either way. And that swastika is not a Nazi symbol – and Manson knows it.”
As any one reading this with even a basic understanding of occult symbology will be aware, the Malta Cross that Tsarion refers to is an emblem belonging to the Catholic Church’s Masonic Knights Templar Order and similar in design to the Nazi ‘Iron Cross’ military decoration. This is a fact not lost on researchers such as Jordan Maxwell who’s dedicated over 50 years in the study of secret societies and fraternal orders. He believes it’s no accident that Adolf Hitler championed a symbol that bore more than a slight resemblance to the Vatican’s Malta Cross, and is actually a mark of allegiance between the two powers.
In his documentary, ‘The Hidden Dimension in World Affairs,’ Maxwell talks of the ancient Roman image of the fasces, which depicts a bundle of wooden sticks with an axe-blade emerging from the centre, and that represents strength through unity. He says, “fasci have been used in political symbolism, and most of the world has no idea in the world what a fasces is. Now, the word ‘fas’… in a law dictionary, fas means, ‘that which is right or just in the sight of God, as distinguished from jus, which more frequently refers to that which is right in the aspect of man-made law’… jus, which gives us that word, justice.” He continues, “Fas; divine law or command – so when you’re talking about divine law and command, you’re talking about God. If you’re talking about God, you’re talking about the Papacy. The Pope, who can bring together many nations into a coalition of nations. So, Fasci-sm and world conflict is another facet of the story of the symbol of the fasci.”
Maxwell continues, “Mussolini had to go to Rome… to sign contracts to allow him to become a Fascist blood-letting dictator under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church. So, Hitler and his Nazis had to do the same thing. So they had to go sign contracts with the old Mob boss in Rome.” Indeed, in July 1933, a treaty between the Holy See and Nazi Germany took effect, and is still in force today. Not surprisingly, the relationship was a controversial one, for example, at the end of the Second World War, the Vatican provided safe escape for Fascists on the run through the infamous ’ratlines,’ and the Catholic Church was also widely criticised for failing to speak out against Nazi atrocities during the war years. On learning that Pope Piux XII directed a Polish priest to keep silent about the murder of Jews, Albert Einstein was quoted as saying, “since when can one make a pact with Christ and Satan at the same time?” Well, the Process Church has apparently attempted it, irrespective of whether it’s possible to do so or not, and it also adopted symbols that hark back to Adolf Hitler and the Holy Roman Empire. Perhaps it too was yet another sinister subsidiary of the malevolent Catholic Church system that Jordan Maxwell speaks of? As he himself states, “the Vatican was always the presiding overseer over Fascism, Nazism, wars, bloodshed, drug-running, plundering, raping and killing throughout the whole world. So if you want to know what’s going on on the Earth, you better check with the Vatican, ‘cos that’s where it all goes back to – even Hitler and Mussolini had to first of all pay tribute to the Holy Father. The Grandmaster of ALL evil on the Earth.”
The swastika is another ancient symbol that has been adopted by numerous cultures and civilisations over the ages, most notably in religions of varying persuasions. Of course, in recent years, it’s image has been stigmatised in the mainstream western world by it’s connections to Nazism. Hardly a surprise then that Rolling Stone Brian Jones was embroiled in a critical backlash after taking part in a particular photo-session in 1966 in which he wore a swastika armband and a Maltese/Iron Cross around his neck. In the book, ’Paint It Black,’ author, Geoffrey Giuliano writes that the musician “posed in full Nazi regalia for the cover of the West German magazine, ‘Stern.’ There was Jones looking every bit the haughty, decadent SS officer, with a Chivalry Cross around his neck, squashing a doll beneath his polished boots while Anita knelt submissively at his feet. Although the shot was discarded, outtakes from the session were later published in Britain, erupting into a major scandal. Jones tried to allay criticism by insisting: ‘I wear a Nazi uniform to show I am anti-Nazi. The meaning of it all is there is no sense to it.’ As for Pallenberg, she explained years later: ‘It was naughty, but what the hell! He looked good in an SS uniform!’”
In light of all the information amassed during his enquiries, Vincent Bugliosi states, “there was at least some contact” between Charles Manson and The Church. During the Tate/LaBianca trial, the lawyer-now-turned-writer asked the Family leader if he knew Robert DeGrimston (real name, Robert Moore). “He denied knowing DeGrimston,” Bugliosi recalls, “but said he had met Moore. ‘You’re looking at him,’ Manson told me. ‘Moore and I are one and the same.’ I took this to mean that he felt they thought alike.” Perhaps. Although Michael Tsarion has stated that, “anyone who’s studied Mind-Control understands what the alter-ego is, and how this is used in Mind-Control – this form of identification.”
Investigate reporter, Maury Terry has also documented Manson’s links to The Church, but unlike Bugliosi, has argued that there is reason to believe his relationship with the organisation was very real and very deep and that it was connected to the slaying of Roman Polanski’s movie actress wife, Sharon Tate and her friends at the couple’s rented home in Cielo Drive, Los Angeles. His claims are to be found in ‘The Ultimate Evil,’ a book which examines the allegations of David Berkowitz AKA ‘The Son of Sam,’ who in 1977 was arrested and then later sentenced to life in prison following the murder of six people in a series of shootings that continued for over a year. At the time of his capture, he declared he was acting alone but has since amended his confession insisting that he was a member of a Satanic cult that orchestrated the incidents as a ritual slaughter. In conversations with Terry, he’s implicated The Process. He’s also said The Church was involved in the Tate/LaBianca deaths. The Manson connection has been brought to Maury’s attention by unnamed sources, including “a jailed Manson killer” who claims The Family met Process leaders at a house near Los Angeles in 1968. To corroborate this alleged meeting, ‘The Ultimate Evil’ makes reference to Manson’s autobiography in which “he wrote that he met individuals who worshiped ‘multiple devils’ at the very house in question.” Terry’s book also refers to another informant who alleges that “Manson joined the cult and later convened” with Process members at locations in California. Furthermore, and contrary to widespread mainstream consensus, Maury’s “reliable” source states that Manson personally knew one of the victims slain in the Tate house that night, namely, the heiress, Abigail Folger who was “friends for a time” with the Family leader in San Francisco. Additionally, Terry claims, “I viewed a letter Manson wrote in 1989. In his own hand, he described another occasion where he met named Process leaders. Incredibly, he said this gathering actually took place at the Tate home – the scene of future slaughter. Manson has also claimed a child pornography element bubbled somewhere in the Tate tableau. This factor was also present in the ‘Son of Sam’ operation, a phase Berkowitz addressed when I interviewed him again in 1997 for New York’s WABC-TV. ‘The Process was very sophisticated and dedicated,’ Berkowitz told me. ‘They had their hands in a lot of things, including drugs and that disgusting child pornography. They also provided kids for sex to some wealthy people, and I did see some of those people at parties.’” Michael Tsarion suggests Manson carried out the 1969 murders on behalf of The Process. He says, “all these families living on Cielo Drive were deeply involved – not only in drugs, but in child pornography – that’s the Tate family, the LaBianca family, and the Polanski family, and even Sharon Tate. They were all involved in paedophilia and child pornography. And The Process hit them for internal reasons. And also to send a message to the rest of Hollywood to fall into line, that when these guys ask you for a payment for their drug money, you’d better fall into line or this is an example of what’s gonna be happening to you.” Another key figure worthy of note is Bruce Davis, Manson’s so-called ‘right-hand man’ who Maury claims travelled to the UK “about nine months before the killings,” and, “according to LA homicide sources,” spent time with The Process whilst he was there. Bugliosi also writes of the high-ranking Family member’s visit to the United Kingdom during the same timeline as documented by Terry, but in relation to another Church. In ’Helter Skelter’ he states that Davis “was very closely involved with Scientology for a time, working in it’s London headquarters from about November or December of 1968 to April of 1969.” He continues, “according to a Scientology spokesman, Davis was kicked out of the organisation for his drug use. He returned to the Manson Family… in time to participate in the Hinman and Shea slayings.” These killings occurred during the period of the Tate/LaBianca murders and eventually led to Davis‘s imprisonment. Donald ‘Shorty’ Shea, was a movie stuntman who occasionally worked at Spahn Ranch, an old disused Hollywood film-set that had been turned into a horse-riding stables and where Manson and his loyal followers were living rent-free with the owner, George Spahn. It’s claimed that The Family sanctioned Shea’s murder, not only because they discovered he was plotting to have them ejected from the property over their unruly behaviour, but also partly due to their belief he’d reported them to the police, which then resulted in a raid on the ranch and them being held in custody on suspicion of car theft. The slaying of music teacher, Gary Hinman over an alleged drug-deal gone wrong was carried out on the orders of Manson by three Family members, one of whom was Bobby Beausoleil, a young musician and sometime actor who played guitar during the mid-’60s for Arthur Lee‘s Folk/Rock band, The Grass Roots, which later changed it‘s name to, ‘Love.’ Before meeting and befriending Manson, he’d been involved in a movie project directed and masterminded by occult avant-garde short-filmmaker, Kenneth Anger, but their relationship eventually soured, reportedly due to disputes over money. A life-long follower of Aleister Crowley, Anger was born Kenneth Anglemeyer in 1927 and began making films as a boy. The themes of homoeroticism, surrealism and magick in his movies were ideally suited to enthral young discerning audiences during the mid-to-late 1960s when the cultural landscape fell under the influence of the hippie and LSD scene and he was welcomed into the inner court of Rock Royalty where he forged friendships with a number of major music artists of the era, including Jimmy Page, and, The Rolling Stones.
Anger is widely quoted as saying, “the occult unit within The Stones was Keith, Anita and Brian. I believe that Anita is, for want of a better word, a witch…” Indeed, Pallenberg has reportedly declared, “yes, I did have an interest in witchcraft, in Buddhism, in the black magicians that my friend, Kenneth Anger, the film-maker, introduced me to. The world of the occult fascinated me…” Of Jones, it’s claimed that Anger said, “you see, Brian was a witch too. I’m convinced. He showed me his Witch’s Tit. He had a supernumerary tit in a very sexy place on his inner thigh. He stated, ‘in another time they would have burned me.’ He was very happy about that.“ Of course, Jones wasn’t wrong to assume that his purported third nipple might’ve led to persecution in a long bygone age. At the height of the witch-hunts in Europe in the 17th century, it was said supernatural entities which appeared in animal form fed off these marks on the body. Known as ‘familiars,’ these spirits were supposedly assigned by the Devil to act as the servants of witches; to aid them in their magick and protect them from attack. Blood was their nourishment and their masters provided it for them, either by sacrificing animals, or directly from the much maligned lumps or blemishes on their skin dubbed, “witches’ teats.” Of all the members in the Rolling Stones, Anger reportedly said that “Brian was the most psychic… He saw the spirit world; for the others it was just the climate of the times. One gets the impression he just dissolved into it.” He was also dissolving into a sea of drugs and booze. A talented musical genius, he was the leading light of the group during their formative years and Jagger and Richards were once his lesser-experienced eager students. In a 2002 interview, Bill Wyman said Jones was “hugely important at the beginning because he formed the band. He chose the members. He named the band. He chose the music we played. He got us gigs… did marvellous things on a lot of songs in the mid-’60s with dulcimers, marimbas – anything he put his hands on he could get a tune out of and turned songs around into something they weren’t when they started. Very influential, very important…” By 1967 though, he was a shadow of his former self; a drug and alcohol addled side-man eclipsed by Mick and Keith who’d by this point, formed a strong and successful song-writing partnership. Wracked by insecurity and jealousy, and opposed to The Stones‘ musical direction which was veering away from their R&B and Blues roots towards a more psychedelic vibe in keeping with the soundscape of the times, he reportedly grew increasingly isolated from his band-mates. His personal life was equally fraught. In his memoirs, ‘Life,’ Keith Richards labels Jones “a woman beater,” but also claims that the tortured musician couldn’t match up to girlfriend, Anita. He writes, “I would hear the thumping some nights, and Brian would come out with a black eye… the one woman in the world you did not want to try and beat up on was Anita Pallenberg.” It would certainly seem that way if one incident in particular is to be believed. “Scraped and bloody” after yet another violent exchange with Jones, Pallenberg sought refuge at a friend’s house. “I was sitting there, in tears, angry, getting my wounds treated, feeling terrible,” she’s said to have recalled. “I decided to make a wax figure of Brian and poke him with a needle. I molded some candle wax into an effigy and said whatever words I said and closed my eyes and jabbed the needle into the wax figure. It pierced the stomach… Next morning when I went back to where I was living with Brian, I found him suffering from severe stomach pains. He’d been up all night, and he was in agony, bottles of Milk of Magnesia and other medications all around him. It took him a day or two to get over it.” Eventually, after one too many beatings and humiliating showdowns, Anita ended their stormy, violent two-year relationship during a continental jaunt across Europe and Africa in 1967 and ran into the arms of Keith Richards who was accompanying them on their excursion. He charts the events that led to the break-up in his memoirs recalling that Jones was struck down with pneumonia on the first-leg of their vacation in France and admitted to a hospital in Toulouse. Anita and Keith decided to travel on without him and arranged to meet their bed-bound travelling companion in Morocco at a later date. The two drove to Spain and then Tangier where they spent time with the American writer, William S. Burroughs, and the British-born artist, author and occultist, Brion Gysin before moving on to Marrakech where Jones eventually joined them. Pallenberg and Richards had embarked on an affair in his absence but quickly ended it when he reappeared on the scene hoping it would remain a secret. This did little to dampen his suspicions though and he faced up to Anita in their hotel room. Keith claims his band-mate reacted with “more violence… trying to take Anita on for fifteen rounds. And once again he breaks two ribs and a finger or something. Then Brian dragged two tattooed whores down the hotel corridor and into the room, trying to force Anita into a scene, humiliating her in front of them. He started to fling food at her from the many trays he’d ordered up. At that point Anita ran to my room. I said, ‘this is pointless. Let’s get the hell out of here. Let’s just leave him.’ Anita was in tears. She didn’t want to leave, but she realised that I was right when I said Brian would probably try and kill her.” Keith hastily hatched an escape plan that would ensure his and Anita’s speedy departure out of Morocco. To avoid attracting Brian’s attention during their breakout attempt, Richards enlisted Brion Gysin to act as an unwitting diversion, falsely informing him that the Press had located Jones’s whereabouts and were hunting him down. It was decided that Gysin take him on a sightseeing trip to evade this supposed media onslaught. In the meantime, Keith and Anita fled to Tangier and then London. It wasn’t until Brian returned to his hotel much later that he discovered what had occurred. The Stone was alone, and he was devastated.
For all the emotional turmoil that Jones is said to have experienced in Morocco during the period of his bust-up with Pallenberg, the country itself rarely disappointed him and he was greatly inspired by it‘s sights and sounds. In 1968, he visited the ancient mountain village of Joujouka to meet the native Sufi Master Musicians whose centuries-old form of trance music had captured his imagination. Largely unknown to the outside world, the Rolling Stone was made aware of their existence by Brion Gysin and Mohamed Hamri, a Moroccan artist and author who later encouraged the Irish-born singer Frank Rynne to embark on a similar pilgrimage during the 1990s. A former member of the 1980s / ‘90s bands, Those Handsome Devils, The Baby Snakes, and more recently, the Islamic Diggers, Rynne eventually recorded an album with the Master Musicians and has since become their manager, helping to promote them to a wider global audience. In a 2007 interview, he talked about the Persian Sufi scholar, Saint (Sidi) Ahmed Sheikh, who is widely believed to have blessed the music of Joujouka with spiritual powers upon first visiting the region over 1,000 years ago. He said, “Sidi Ahmed Sheikh… is credited with founding Joujouka. Having wandered from Persia in the 860s AD, he and his seven companions encountered a tribe of musicians in the Ahl Srif Djebel. Hearing them play the saint felt their music was useful. He wrote music for them with a spiritual intent; to calm and cure ailments of the mind and to promote peace and harmony. Sidi Ahmed drew a line in the sand in Joujouka: those who follow his path, remaining on his side of the line may reap bountiful rewards and fertility, those who are outside the line can find no happiness in Joujouka.”
When Brian Jones returned to London following his brief stay with the Master Musicians, he set about editing and remixing a batch of recordings he’d made of the Moroccan group on a portable tape-machine, the results of which were released as an album in 1971. It’s title, ‘Brian Jones Presents the Pipes of Pan at Joujouka,’ is derived from a fertility rite the villagers carry out each year which centres on a half-man half-goat character named, Boujeloud who’s enticed by the dancing temptress, Aisha. He holds branches in his hand, and any female onlooker hit with them is destined to become fertile.
In the sleeve-notes attached to Jones’s album, Brion Gysin equates the rite with the ancient God, Pan. He commented on this during an interview with the writer, Terry Wilson. He said, “I recognised very quickly that what they were performing was the Roman Lupercal, and the Roman Lupercalia was a race run from one part of Rome, a cave under the Capitoline Hill, which Mussolini claimed to have discovered, but is now generally conceded to be some 10 or 15 metres further down… and in this cave goats were killed and skinned and a young man of a certain tribe was sown up in them, and one of these young men was Mark Antony, and when in the beginning of Julius Caesar, when they meet, he was actually running this race of Lupercalia through Rome on the 15th March, the Ides of March… and the point was to go out to the gates of Rome and contact Pan, the God of the Forests, the little Goat God, who was Sexuality itself, and to run back through the streets with the news that Pan was still out there f*****g as he flailed the women in the crowds, which is why Julius Caesar asked him to be sure to hit Calpurnia, because his wife Calpurnia was barren.”
The physical depiction of The Devil as a horned, goat-like figure is generally regarded to have been an invention of Christianity during the Middle Ages when it was targeting pagans who worshiped horned gods such as the Celtic deity, Cernunnos, and of course, Pan, who as a consequence, is often identified with Satan.
When the Knights Templar were arrested, tortured and interrogated by King Philip IV of France in the 14th century at the time of the Roman Catholic Inquistion, some of them confessed that they had participated in the worship of a “heathen” idol, usually consisting of a severed head and known as, Baphomet. In the mid-1800s, the French occultist, magician, and freemason, Eliphas Levi drew a picture of an androgynous figure with a goat’s head dubbed, the ‘Baphomet of Mendes,’ a name which harks back to themes explored and recorded by Greek historian, Herodotus thousands of years earlier in ‘The History – Book II.’ He wrote of Djedet, an ancient Egyptian city known in Greek as, Mendes and in it’s native language as, Banebdjed in honour of the ram deity of the same name. Herodotus described how this Mendesian God was represented with the head, legs, and fleece of a goat. He also stated that “in Egyptian, the goat and Pan are both called Mendes.”
Levi’s illustration, which combined elements from The Devil in Tarot cards, lives on, most notably through organisations such as ‘The Church of Satan’ which has adopted and adapted the iconic image as it’s official logo. The so-called ‘Great Beast,’ Aleister Crowley, was also inspired by Baphomet, as he was by Pan whom he referred to in his written works. According to his friend, the writer, Dennis Wheatley, Crowley attempted to invoke the ancient fertility god in a hotel room in Paris in the days before the First World War. He writes, “one of his disciples owned a small hotel on the Left Bank. Crowley greatly wished to raise Pan; so the hotel proprietor got rid of his staff for the weekend and Crowley’s coven of disciples assembled there. The furniture from a room under the roof was removed and it was swept clean. In the evening Crowley, in his magician’s robes, went into it accompanied by MacAleister (son of Aleister), one of his disciples. He then told the other eleven members of the coven that whatever noises they might hear in no circumstances were they to enter the room before morning. The eleven went downstairs to a cold buffet, very nervous. A little after midnight they heard an appalling racket in the upper room, but obeyed the Master’s orders and did not go up. When in the morning they did go up, they knocked on the door but there was no reply, so they broke it in. Both MacAleister and Crowley had had their robes ripped from them and were naked. MacAleister was dead and Crowley a gibbering idiot crouching in a corner. Perhaps Crowley did succeed in raising Pan and the horned god strongly objected to being taken away from whatever he was doing. Anyhow, Crowley spent four months in a loony-bin outside Paris before he was allowed about again.”
It wouldn’t require a great leap of faith to entertain the possibility that Brian Jones’s fascination in the Moroccan Master Musicians was to some extent fuelled by his well documented interest in the occult, even when taking into account the denials from some quarters that the half-man half-goat Boujeloud has no affiliation with Pan, or any other pagan deity for that matter. There’s a mystical, esoteric force underpinning the music, the history, and the heritage of Joujouka that would perhaps have appealed to the Rolling Stone. Consider for example the comments of renowned scholar and artist, Jean-Jacques Lebel made during an interview for the documentary on the life and times of Brion Gysin titled, ‘Flicker.’ He describes the villagers as, “a bunch of… heavy witchcraft, pre-Islamic brotherhood of men doing strange things like bringing about ghosts.” If true, one can only imagine how such occultish practises might’ve energised Jones’s curiosity in the Master Musicians and their ancient culture.
A year prior to his visit to Joujouka and the subsequent recordings which resulted from it came the release of, ‘A Degree of Murder,’ a West German movie that Jones composed, produced, arranged, and performed the music for, and which features Anita Pallenberg in the lead role of Marie, a woman who accidentally shoots her boyfriend and then hires two men to help her dump the dead body. Although never officially issued in it’s own right, Brian’s soundtrack is the first significant solo outing by a member of The Rolling Stones.
However, this milestone in the band’s long and lively history was overshadowed at the time by a series of events that are now firmly ingrained in the annals of Rock & Pop culture. As the movie was being unveiled at the Cannes Film Festival in April / May 1967, the long arm of the law was descending upon the group in one fell swoop. In London, police raided Brian’s apartment and arrested him on suspicion of drugs possession whilst in another part of the country on the very same day, Mick and Keith were in court being charged in connection with an unrelated bust earlier in the year. Jagger was accused of illegally possessing amphetamine pills, and Richards with allowing his house to be used for the purpose of smoking cannabis. Both pleaded ‘not guilty.’ Released on bail, their trial date was set for June. In his memoirs, Keith makes note of the police raid on Brian’s London residence which occurred “almost on the hour” that he and Mick were standing before magistrates. The “stitch-up,” as he describes it, “was orchestrated and synchronised with rare precision. But due to some small glitch of stage management, the Press actually arrived, television crews included, a few minutes before the police knocked on Brian’s door with their warrant. The police had to push through the army of hacks that they had summoned to get to the door. But this collusion was barely noticeable in the farce that unfolded.” The unfolding “farce” that he refers to is a short but eventful chapter in the Rolling Stones story in which two young, long-haired, drug-using Pop-star upstarts are pitted against the old guard of the Great British Establishment and it’s disapproving justice system which seeks to make examples of them and quash the power and influence they wield over an impressionable generation of youth. The February 1967 raid on ‘Redlands‘ – Richard’s country home in the English county of Sussex – provided the backdrop for this story, and for a brief period during the first half of that year, Mick and Keith were carried off in a headline-hitting whirlwind of controversy and scandal the likes of which they’d never experienced before (or since). However, for all the ‘hype & hoopla’ that was undoubtedly generated by the media at the time in order to boost public interest in the lurid details of the drug bust, it’s perhaps the less reported aspects of it that are actually the most sensational, complete with allegations and evidence implicating the police, the UK tabloid Press, and even the secret services in a web of conspiracy and deceit. The origins of the Redlands raid has been linked back to an article in the ‘News of the World,’ the British newspaper with a noted and notorious reputation for specialising in stories of a salacious nature. In early February 1967, it published extracts of what it claimed was an interview with Mick Jagger who was apparently seen out enjoying drinks at a London nightclub. He was quoted as saying, “I don’t go much on it (LSD) now the cats have taken it up. It’ll just get a dirty name. I remember the first time I took it. It was on our tour with two American Rock & Roll stars.” He reportedly swallowed down a number of amphetamines during the candid discussion explaining that, “I just wouldn’t keep awake in places like this if I didn’t have them.” As it turned out, the Rolling Stone cited in the article wasn’t Mick Jagger, but, Brian Jones. The newspaper – whether intentionally or not – had attributed the quotes to the wrong name. When Jagger read the article, he contacted his lawyers and made moves to sue the ’News of the World’ for libel. An account describing what happened as a result of his legal bid was aired recently by author, Simon Wells. He’s interviewed a number of key figures closely associated with the Redlands raid and it’s aftermath, and has also pored through official documents from police, courts, and solicitors of the time. His book ‘Butterfly on the Wheel. Rolling Stones – The Great Bust’ documents those findings. Speaking to the radio/music website, ‘IconFetch.com’ last year he said, “the possibility of a defamation of character suit against the paper would’ve been enormous – given Jagger’s reputation. I was told it could’ve run to quarter of a million pounds in 1967… it’s a massive lawsuit. It could’ve effectively derailed the paper. So, to stymie that lawsuit, they got together and decided, ‘well, we’ve got to find him in possession of drugs, or in a situation where there’s drugs – basically to embarrass the lawsuit.’ They got one of their most… prominent… reporters to infiltrate the Stones’ circle, pay off a driver, and find out the movements of The Stones – there was also some phone-tapping going on, and some other stuff as well.” In ‘Life,’ Keith Richards recalls, “it was Patrick, my Belgian chauffeur, who sold us out to the ‘News of the World’… I’m paying this driver handsomely, and the gig’s the gig, keep schtum. But the ‘News of the World’ got to him. Didn’t do him any good. As I heard it, he never walked the same again.” That the newspaper should be linked to untoward surveillance techniques is nothing new of course. It’s involvement in a series of ongoing phone-hacking scandals dating from 2005 onwards were examined in 2011 by a public government inquiry chaired by the judge, Lord Justice Leveson. Employees of the tabloid have been accused of accessing the voicemails of various celebrities, politicians, and other well known figures as well as relatives of British soldiers killed in Iraq and Afghanistan, victims of the London 7/7 bombings, and murdered schoolgirl, Milly Dowler. A succession of police investigations have resulted in the imprisonment of a royal correspondent, and the arrest of a number of reporters and also former ‘News of the World’ editor, Rebekah Brooks, who is due to stand trial in September 2013. In March this year, a counter-terrorism officer in the London Metropolitan Police was jailed for 15 months for offering to sell information to the newspaper. Simon Wells says intelligence gathered by the tabloid back in 1967 on Mick Jagger’s movements led it to Redlands where the singer was planning to spend some time with Keith and a small group of friends and associates. He explains, “they determined that the party was going to happen at the Redlands house and that they would tip off police – I found in… papers which I rediscovered that the ’News of the World’ tipped off London police who…refused to act on it by saying that… if they actually found Mick Jagger in possession of drugs, it could well backfire on the squad. ’News of the World’ were undeterred – they actually then turned it over to the local police in Chichester in Sussex… and they leant on the head of the police there, and this person… from what I can gather from the intelligence I received from people who worked there at the time – that the ’News of the World’ made it clear that if the raid didn’t take place, they would then embarrass the police force for not being hard on drugs – so their hand was forced.”
Mick Jagger and girlfriend Marianne Faithfull made their way to Redlands on the Saturday night of February 11th 1967. There they were joined by renowned British photographer, Michael Cooper; the reputed antiques dealer, Christopher Gibbs; Keith’s upper-class drifter friend and hanger-on, Nicky Kramer; influential modern-art dealer, Robert Fraser, and his Moroccan servant, Mohammed. Also present was a mysterious individual thought to be either of Canadian or American descent going by the name of, David Schneiderman and who’d flown into London not long before. Keith Richards recalls that “Schneiderman, who also went by the moniker of ‘Acid King,’ was the source of that very high-quality Acid of the time, such brands as Strawberry Fields, Sunshine, and Purple Haze – where do you think Jimi (Hendrix) got that from? All kinds of mixtures, and that’s how Schneiderman got in on the crowd, by providing this super-duper Acid.”
Marianne Faithfull remembers waking up on the morning of Sunday February 12th to a cup of tea and a tab of LSD courtesy of the Acid King who was making his rounds through the house ensuring the guests were supplied with their trips for that day. In her memoirs, she writes, “we took it and the first bit was a sort of waiting-for-the-Acid-to-come-on time. I remember getting quite sick and I think Mick did, too. It was very strong Acid, stronger than anything I’ve ever had since. Nobody talked a lot that day. The usual conscious babble subsided. It was very strong Acid and the experience was so overwhelming that there wasn’t much you could put into words.” As daylight dimmed and the evening hours set in, Keith remembers, “there was a knock at the door, I look through the window and there’s this whole lot of dwarves outside, but they’re all wearing the same clothes! They were policemen, but I didn’t know it. They just looked like very small people wearing dark blue with shiny bits and helmets. They were trying to read a warrant to me. ’Oh that’s very nice, but it’s a bit cold outside, come on in and read it to me over the fireplace.’ I’d never been busted before and I was still on Acid. While we‘re gently bouncing down from the Acid, they‘re trampling through the place, doing what they‘ve got to do… ” One of the 18 police officers deployed for the raid that night was Detective Constable Evelyn Florence Fuller. In documents presented in the subsequent court case, she describes what she found whilst searching through Jagger’s and Faithfull’s bedroom – and it makes for interesting reading…
“I went up the stairs, turned left and at the end of the landing there was a large bedroom which had a double bed in it which had no bed-clothes on it. There were pink ostrich feathers lying on the bed and on a chair in the bedroom were items of clothing; a pair of black velvet trousers, a white bra, a white lace Edwardian blouse, a black cloth half coat, a black sombrero-type hat, and a pair of mauve-coloured ladies boots. I also noticed a large chest of drawers on the top of which were a number of books on witch-craft; one book was called ’Games to Play.’ On the floor was a large hold-all which contained two or three dagger-type weapons.”
“Books on witchcraft“?… “Dagger-type weapons”? What exactly was going on at ‘Redlands’ that weekend?… Some form of Acid-fuelled occult magick group-ritual perhaps?
During the search, police found four amphetamine tablets in the pocket of a jacket that Jagger said belonged to him, although Marianne has since maintained that he was assuming responsibility for drugs that were in fact hers. Robert Fraser, meanwhile, tried to convince officers that the heroin pills they discovered in his possession were actually for his diabetes. These substances, along with various other items, were taken away that night for analysis. No arrests were made and the Redlands party, in Richard’s words, “just carried on.”
One of the most intriguing aspects of the raid is the cloud of suspicion that hangs over the enigmatic David Schneiderman who Keith and Marianne believe was sent to discredit The Stones. Of particular interest is his attache case which was supposedly full of drugs and which police allegedly failed to search, even though it sat on a table in full view of them at Redlands that night. Richards has reportedly said, “when a cop asked to see the contents of his case, Schneiderman said it was full of exposed film and couldn’t be opened, and the cop let it go at that.” In her 1994 autobiography, Faithfull writes, “almost the classic dealer’s suitcase you’d see on any cop show, and they didn’t examine one thing in it!” Marianne also questions the timing of Schneiderman’s unexpected arrival in the UK, which just so happened to coincide with Mick Jagger’s legal moves against the ‘News of the World.’ She states, “of course, nobody knew about this writ. The only people who knew were those at the ‘News of the World.’ It wasn’t released to the Press. And it’s this fact that makes everything else that happened highly suspicious. The ‘News of the World’ obviously called the little men in MI5 and said: ‘Look, these people need to be taken down. Will you help us?’ And the little men said, ‘Of course, we’d only be too pleased.’ The snare was going to be the drugs, of course. They would set it all up with the West Sussex police and that would be that. Their master stroke was to bring David Schneiderman over from California with loads of LSD to set us up. They must have flown him in for this bust. He appeared very fast; right after the writ had been issued he showed up at Robert Fraser’s flat. Robert called up and said: ‘We’ve got this guy here, David Schneiderman, a Yank, just got in from California and he’s brought this great Acid with him from the States. It’s called White Lightning or something fabulous like that and he wants to lay some on us, man.’ So I said, ‘how f*****g great! Wait, Robert, I’ve got a fantastic idea, why don’t we all go down to Redlands for the weekend. I’ll call Keith right now and set it up.’ And right after all this, Schneiderman vanished into thin air (whisked out of the country I should think).” In ‘Life,’ Richards offers a similar observation regarding the Acid King’s fleeting presence, stating, “he was at every party for about two weeks and then mysteriously disappeared and was never seen again.” Later in the book, he too accuses him of colluding with the ’News of the World.’ After the two Stones stood trial in June, the notorious tabloid reportedly published a front-page editorial in which it denied any association with Schneiderman and rejected claims it had planted him at Redlands in order to discredit Jagger’s libel action. It also dismissed accusations that it had spied on the singer. The newspaper did admit tipping off police about Keith‘s party, but stated it was acting on the information of a reader.
Faithfull’s and Richards’ accounts of what occurred at Redlands have also been rebuffed by those associated with Thomas Davies, a member of the 18-strong team that searched through the Rolling Stone’s house that night. This is according to Simon Wells and information collected during his own investigation into the bust which doesn’t support Keith’s and Marianne’s claims that Schneiderman‘s alleged attache case of drugs was left unopened. Although now deceased, the author learned of Davies’s version of events from official police-notes written after the raid. Wells says, “certainly from the knowledge I gathered from colleagues of Thomas Davies… if someone said to you, ‘don’t open my bag…’. the first thing you do is, you tear it to bits. So, his bag was searched.” Simon has also questioned the validity of fresh allegations that have surfaced in recent months which correspond with Marianne Faithfull’s long-established suspicions that Schneiderman was a secret service asset sent to destroy the Rolling Stones. The latest claims appeared on the news-site ’Mail Online’ in September 2012, just weeks before the release of, ‘Mick Jagger,’ a biography by reputed Rock music writer, Philip Norman. Whilst researching the Redlands incident in preparation for the book, the author came into contact with Maggie Abbott, a British film agent based in Los Angeles who, during the 1980s, befriended David Jove, a pioneering TV producer who later confided to her that his real name was David Snyderman AKA the Acid King. In the ‘Mail Online,‘ Norman states, “in January 1967, according to the account he gave Maggie Abbott, Snyderman was a failed TV actor, drifting around Europe in the American hippie throng with Swinging London as his final destination. At Heathrow Airport he was caught with drugs in his luggage and expected to be thrown into jail and instantly deported. Instead, British Customs handed him over to some ‘heavy people’ who hinted they belonged to MI5 and told him there was ‘a way out’ of his predicament. This was to infiltrate the Rolling Stones, supply Mick Jagger and Keith Richards with drugs, and then get them busted. According to Snyderman, MI5 were operating on behalf of an FBI offshoot known as COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) set up by the FBI’s director, J. Edgar Hoover, in the 1920s to protect national security and maintain the existing social and political order. By 1967, COINTELPRO was focusing on the subversive effect of Rock music on America’s young, particularly the kind coming from Britain, and most particularly the kind played by The Rolling Stones.” The ‘Mail Online’ feature, which also appears to support Richards’ and Faithfull’s allegations regarding Schneiderman’s infamous bag of drugs, was slammed by Simon Wells. In comments posted on a Rolling Stones internet forum, he described it as reeking “of revived sensationalism to sell a new book” and criticised the author for apparently failing to acknowledge the claims of police officer, Thomas Davies who “made copious reference in his notes that he did search the attache case.”
Simon’s frustration is understandable, and he has legitimate reason to question some of Norman’s claims too. However, there’s nothing ‘sensational’ in the idea of the FBI willingly targeting influential Rock musicians in a drug-sting. Back in the early-to-mid 1970s, the secret services considered entrapping former Beatle John Lennon in a narcotics bust in a bid to ensure his deportation from the United States at a time when he was aligning himself closely with radical political activists of the era including Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin. This is according to history professor, Jon Wiener who was finally granted access to pages of confidential FBI documents in 1997 after filing a Freedom of Information request in 1981. His research led to the book, ‘Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files.’ Speaking to reporter Amy Goodman during an interview on the TV news-show ’Democracy Now!’ in December 2005, he claimed the organisation was uneasy with Lennon’s plans to stage a series of thought-provoking concerts in 1972. Wiener said then-President Richard Nixon, “was preparing to run for re-election. The war in Vietnam had reached a peak. It was clear that this was going to be a big issue in ’72. The concert-tour that Lennon was planning would have been quite a big deal… what Lennon had in mind was something different. He wanted to combine Rock music with radical politics and use the tour to urge young people to register to vote – 1972 was the first year that 18-year-olds were given the right to vote, so that was going to be an important project – and vote against the war, and that meant voting against Nixon. Nixon got wind of this plan and promptly began deportation proceedings against Lennon to try to get him out of the country to prevent this tour from ever happening.” According to a February 1972 memo, Republican Senator and Nixon supporter, Strom Thurmond suggested that “deportation would be a strategic counter-measure” against Lennon. A month later, the United States ‘Immigration and Naturalization Service’ began formal proceedings to have him deported, arguing that his 1968 conviction for cannabis possession in London had made him ineligible for admission to the U.S. This prompted a three-year court battle as Lennon fought to remain in the country. Speaking during an earlier interview for ’Democracy Now!’ in May 2000, Weiner claims the FBI seriously considered the benefits of a drug bust to eject the former Beatle from the US after it received reports from an undercover agent attending a meeting of radical political figures that plans were afoot to stage anti-war demonstrations at the Republican National Convention in Miami where President Nixon was poised to be re-nominated. Weiner says, “the FBI continued to worry throughout the summer of 1972 that Lennon was going to participate in demonstrations outside the Republican National Convention, so they sent word down to the Miami FBI to, quote, ‘arrest Lennon, if at all possible, on possession of narcotics charges,’ which they said would make him more immediately deportable. This seems to me to be an effort to set Lennon up for a drug bust, since the FBI doesn’t enforce possession of narcotics charges; this is a State and local matter. So it’s clearly, you know, an abuse of power.”
The once secret COINTELPRO project that Philip Norman alludes to, was finally exposed and shutdown in 1971 after an activist group burglarised an FBI office and stole confidential documents that revealed it’s existence. However, as has been confirmed in the years since, the tactics applied by the bureau’s former offshoot continued, despite it’s formal abolishment, and the plot to deport Lennon in 1972 bears many of it’s classic hallmarks. In 1976, covert tactics such as these were revealed publicly during an investigation by the ‘Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities of the United States Senate’ – commonly referred to as the “Church Committee.” It concluded that the FBI’s COINTELPRO program had unlawfully “harassed” and “disrupted” individuals and groups on the basis of their political beliefs and lifestyles, “even when those beliefs posed no threat of violence or illegal acts on behalf of a hostile foreign power.” Organisations such as the ‘Women’s Liberation Movement’ had been targeted by the bureau, as well as anti-Vietnam War activists, and the civil rights leader, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The FBI employed undercover agents to infiltrate groups, and adopted “unsavoury and vicious tactics… including anonymous attempts to break up marriages, disrupt meetings,” and, “ostracise persons from their professions.” The Church Committee also discovered evidence of covert media manipulation in order to “influence the public’s perception of persons and organisations by disseminating derogatory information to the Press, either anonymously or through ‘friendly’ news contacts.” Had a similar tactic been used against Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, perhaps by COINTELPRO? Was Marianne Faithfull correct then to surmise in her autobiography that the ‘News of the World’ “obviously called the little men in MI5” to assist in bringing down The Rolling Stones? Philip Norman does note a number of factors in his ‘Mail Online’ feature that would’ve been reason enough for the FBI and British intelligence services to team up and work in league against the legendary group, factors that a number of music and sociological commentators over the decades have highlighted when assessing the cultural impact of The Stones during the 1960s. The band’s enigmatic manager, Andrew Loog Oldham is often cited in such appraisals, primarily for his role in marketing them in the early part of their career as the scruffy, rebellious and dangerous equivalent to the clean, family-friendly Beatles. Norman writes, “as Beatlemania swept the nation, and the Fab Four appeared on the Royal Variety Show, respectfully ducking their mop-tops before the Queen Mother, he (Oldham) realised that The Beatles’ original fans felt let down by their mainstream success. Where was the excitement, the rebellion, in liking the same band your parents, or even grandparents did? Oldham set about marketing the Rolling Stones as the anti-Beatles, the scowling flip side of the coin… When they burst on to the music scene in 1963 it was in a Britain that still equated masculinity with the Army recruit’s stringent ‘short back and sides’. Curling over ears and brushing collars, the Stones’ long locks were almost as much as an affront to polite society as Mick Jagger’s unusually large mouth and vivid red lips. These seemed to have an indecency all of their own, even before they snarled out The Stones’ highly provocative lyrics. In June 1965, their single ‘Satisfaction’ created the greatest scandal in America since Elvis Presley first swivelled his hips exactly a decade earlier. With the line ‘tryin’ to make some girl’, it contained the first direct reference to sex in any Pop song, an outrage compounded 18 months later when The Stones released ‘Let’s Spend the Night Together.’ There had been innumerable songs about nocturnal trysts but never one with so barefaced an invitation to get between the sheets. The furore was such that, when The Stones previewed the song on America’s Ed Sullivan television show in January 1967, Mick was forced to change the crucial phrase to ‘Let’s Spend Some Time Together.’ He agreed to do so, but only with much pointed eye-rolling every time he reached the newly-neutered line. All this was bad enough, but then came a truly unforgivable incident. A week after that appearance on the Ed Sullivan show, and just three weeks before the Redlands drugs bust, The Stones were invited to top the bill on ‘Sunday Night At The London Palladium,’ the much-loved TV variety show which had been the making of The Beatles. During rehearsals they announced that they would not take part in the hallowed tradition of acts waving goodbye to viewers from a revolving podium during the grand finale. In the end they compromised – standing off the podium and waving, with clear sarcasm and disrespect. This highly rebellious act won them few friends.” It’s also perhaps worth noting the trail of violence, destruction (and death) that The Stones left behind them on their riotous concert tours and how it might have been perceived by the pillars of The Establishment and their shadowy secret service associates who were apparently hell bent on crushing dissent amongst the younger generation. In 1967, Mick Jagger reportedly told a journalist, “I see a great deal of danger in the air. Teenagers are not screaming over Pop music anymore, they’re screaming for much deeper reasons. We’re only serving as a means of giving them an outlet. Pop music is just the superficial tissue. When I’m on the stage I sense that the teenagers are trying to communicate to me, like by telepathy, a message of some urgency. Not about me or my music, but about the world and the way they live. I interpret it as their demonstration against society and it’s sick attitudes. Teenagers the world over are weary of being pushed around by half-witted politicians who attempt to dominate their way of thinking and set a code for their living. This is a protest against the system.” And so, Philip Norman continues, “the cumulative effect of all these outrages became clear when the FBI asked for MI5’s co-operation in getting Mick Jagger and Keith Richards charged with drug possession, thus ensuring that they would be denied visas for the US tours which were essential if they were to remain at the top in the music business. By now MI5 was more than happy to assist in the thwarting of these public menaces, and the detention of David Snyderman at Heathrow Airport presented an opportunity too good to miss. Within a couple of weeks of agreeing to help the secret services, he had somehow become friendly with all the front-line Stones… He duly arrived for that weekend at Redlands… He kept his cover throughout the Saturday but the following day he almost gave the game away, talking enigmatically to photographer Michael Cooper about spying and espionage. ‘He was into the James Bond thing,’ recalls Cooper. ‘You know, the whole CIA bit.’”
In the biography, ‘Mick Jagger,‘ Norman claims that Cooper, “recalled a moment at Redlands when, searching through Acid King David’s luggage for hash, he’d noticed a passport in the name ‘David English.’ Even the surname they’d known him by – Snyderman? Sniderman? Schneiderman? – now seemed suspiciously vague, if indeed, it was genuine.” Additionally, “not long after turning into David Jove, he had married a comedienne named Lotus Weinstock, whose brother, Joel, also discovered his real surname. Jove gave Joel Weinstock a few hints about the Redlands story, but threatened to kill him if he ever breathed a word of it.” David’s and Lotus’s daughter is the recording artist, Lili Haydn, who Funk legend George Clinton has reportedly hailed, “the Jimi Hendrix of the violin.” In yet another ‘Mail Online’ article, this time from 2010, it’s claimed that she too finally learned of her father’s past identity in a confession he made to her shortly before losing his battle to cancer in 2004 aged 61. Maggie Abbott says, “before his death he said he was the Acid King. He never showed any remorse for what he did. David was a heavy drug user but had a quick wit. He was the perfect choice to infiltrate The Stones. He told me he wasn’t a drug dealer. He felt he was expanding the consciousness of some of the greatest minds of his day.”
When she and David met in the early ’80s, he was a pioneering television producer, perhaps best known for creating the US TV programme, ‘New Wave Theatre,’ which showcased up and coming Punk and New Wave acts. Ironically, Abbott used to represent Mick Jagger in her role as a film-agent and also knew Marianne Faithfull whom she unwittingly introduced to David in 1985 when she was still unaware of his alleged former life. “Taking her over to his den late one night when everywhere else was closed,” she writes on her website, “he broke his years of underground cover by telling her his real name, must have been his ego, too hard to resist seeing her shock too.” In the ‘Mail Online’ Maggie says, “when we got into my car, she said, ‘it’s him, the Acid King. He set up the Redlands bust. Don’t ever see him again.’ Two months after the evening with Marianne, I finally had it out with him. To my amazement, he told me everything. He said, ‘it’s a relief to be able to talk about it.’”
In her 1994 autobiography, Marianne also recalls coming into contact with Jove / Schneiderman / Snyderman / Sniderman / English, although she appears to be referring to a meeting that occurred some years after her alleged encounter with him in 1985. She writes, “I saw him about five years ago in Los Angeles. He’s become quite harebrained. I think the Redlands business derailed him. When somebody comes apart after something like this, it’s usually because they’ve done something they can’t live with.” The former Acid King was, according to Philip Norman, forever haunted by his actions back in February 1967 because although he “had done everything asked of him, and afterwards had been discreet to the point of changing his identity, his reward was what he called a ‘lifetime of fear.’ For the rest of his days, even after COINTELPRO no longer existed, he half expected those heavy people who’d spirited him out of Britain in 1967 to come after him and make sure he never did blow his cover.” Maggie Abbott says, “I thought about trying to persuade David to come clean publicly. But he was always armed with a handgun and I feared that if I gave him away, he’d shoot me.” Joel Weinstock, who Philip Norman claims David had threatened, reportedly told the ‘Mail Online,’ “one New Year’s Eve, he showed me a gun and said he’d just killed a man who was messing with his car.” It’s also rumoured that Jove murdered Peter Ivers, the presenter of ‘New Wave Theatre.’ He was found bludgeoned to death with a hammer in his Los Angeles apartment in 1983. The killer has never been identified. Abbott says, “there was talk that Peter had decided to leave the show and David was angry.” Although the Los Angeles Police Department has reportedly re-opened the investigation into his slaying, it’s perhaps safe to assume that the killing will forever remain a mystery, as will the exact circumstances surrounding the movements of David ‘Jove’ during February 1967. However, in her 1994 autobiography, Marianne Faithfull is unequivocal. “In retrospect it was obvious to all of us that Schneiderman had set us up,” she writes. “At the time this conspiracy theory business sounded like your typical drugged-out, paranoid hippie ravings, but if you read the recent revelations of what MI5 was up to around this time, it doesn’t seem so far-fetched.” In ‘Life,’ Keith Richards states, “we’d become the focal point of a nervous Establishment. I’d obviously p****d off the authorities. I’m a guitar player in a Pop band and I’m being targeted by the British government and it’s vicious police force, all of which shows me how frightened they are. We won two world wars, and these people are shivering in their Goddamn boots. ‘All your children will be like this if you don’t stop this right now.’ There was such ignorance on both sides. We didn’t know we were doing anything that was going to bring the empire crashing to the floor, and they were searching in their sugar bowls not knowing what they were looking for.” At the trial, Mick Jagger was sentenced to three months in prison for possession of amphetamines and Keith Richards to one year for allowing cannabis to be smoked in his home.
Reflecting on Judge Leslie Allen Block’s ruling, Simon Wells says, “for a misdemeanour that this day would be treated in the same way as a parking ticket, they received exemplary sentences, but more than that… there were other less anonymous young men who were receiving the same sort of treatment. So it wasn’t exemplary as far as Mick and Keith were concerned, but he certainly showed no clemency.” Jagger was sent to Brixton Prison in south London, and Keith Richards to Wormwood Scrubs in the west of the city. The guitarist recalls that “most of the first day of the prison sentence was induction. You get in with the rest of the inductees and take a shower and they spray you with lice spray. Oh, nice one, son. The whole place is meant to intimidate you to the max. I walked around in an orderly circle with so much rabbit going on it took me a while to get a touch on the back. ‘Keef, you got bail, you sod.’ Our lawyers had filed an appeal and I’d been released on bail.” So had Jagger.
Judge Block’s sentencing sparked an uproar among certain quarters of society. Not surprisingly, famous musicians of the day rallied round in solidarity. The Who recorded cover versions of the Stones songs ‘The Last Time’ and ‘Under My Thumb’ to campaign for their release although by the time these were made available, Mick and Keith were already out of jail.
Prior to the trial, John Lennon and Paul McCartney sang backing vocals on The Rolling Stones’ ‘We Love You,’ a track written and recorded by the band in response to the drug busts. It begins with the jangling sound of a jailer’s keys followed by echoing footsteps and a cell door being slammed shut. Then, a distinctive piano-intro played by noted session musician, Nicky Hopkins appears before we’re led into a four-minute-plus psychedelia-soaked sonic collage that’s punctuated by eerie sound-effects, tribal-style drum rhythms and hypnotic vocal harmonies. Released as a single in August ‘67, there was also an accompanying music-video which showed the band at work in the studio (including a seemingly ‘wasted’ Brian Jones) as well as a depiction of a court-room scene in which Richards plays the role of the judge and Jagger a defendant. Marianne Faithfull also appears and is seen standing at the dock before a bewigged Keith with a fur rug in her hands looking remorseful. This is no doubt a reference to the over-emphasis that police, the courts and news-media dedicated to her state of (un)dress on the night of the Redlands bust when officers witnessed her wearing nothing but a fur rug. Having just finished a bath, she’d wrapped it around her naked body and rejoined her fellow house-guests. In her autobiography, she recalls that, “the lady constable wanted to search me. I dropped the fur rug just for a second. It wasn’t one bit lascivious, just a quick flounce done very gracefully, almost like a curtsy, so they could see I had no clothes on and that’s all. I thought it was so hysterically funny. I couldn’t help myself. I always have been an incorrigible exhibitionist. It was the gulf between us on Acid and them with their note-pads that made it seem so hilarious at the time. It didn’t seem quite so funny later. I certainly got paid back in spades.” Indeed she did. A rumour that was born from the Redlands bust is that Faithfull was caught in a compromising situation with a ’Mars’ chocolate-bar when police raided the house. There’s no evidence to prove this actually occurred and Marianne has repeatedly and vehemently denied it in the years since. Despite her protestations though, this slice of Rock folklore has become an established part of everyday urban legend.
The ‘fur rug factor’ was also referred to by the prosecution at the trial, as Keith Richards documents in ‘Life.’ He writes,
The actual exchange went as follows:
Morris (The Prosecutor): There was, as we know, a young woman sitting on a settee wearing only a rug. Would you agree, in the ordinary course of events, you would expect a young woman to be embarrassed if she had nothing on but a rug in the presence of eight men, two of whom were hangers-on and the third a Moroccan servant?
Keith: Not at all.
Morris: You regard that, do you, as quite normal?
Keith: We are not old men. We are not worried about petty morals.
It was perhaps something of a surprise to The Rolling Stones that the most significant and effective support in the wake of the drug bust came from what might have been perceived at the time one of Great Britain’s bastions of ‘The Establishment‘; None other than ’The Times’ newspaper. Some days after Mick and Keith’s sentencing, it published an article that was specially written by it’s editor, William Rees-Mogg, titled, ‘Who Breaks a Butterfly on a Wheel?’ It not only criticised and denounced Judge Block’s ruling, but the begrudging disdain that was being directed by some towards Mick Jagger.
“Mr. Jagger was charged with being in possession of four tablets containing amphetamine sulphate and methyl amphetamine hydrochloride… They are not a highly dangerous drug, or in proper dosage a dangerous drug at all… Four is not a large number. This is not the quantity which a pusher of drugs would have on him, nor even the quantity one would expect in an addict. It is surprising… that Judge Block should have decided to sentence Mr. Jagger to imprisonment and particularly surprising as Mr. Jagger’s is about as mild a drug case as can ever have been brought before the Courts.
It would be wrong to speculate on the judge’s reasons which we do not know. It is however, possible to consider the public reaction. There are many people who take a primitive view of the matter, what one might call a pre-legal view of the matter. They consider that Mr. Jagger has ‘got what was coming to him.‘ They resent the anarchic quality of The Rolling Stones’ performances, dislike their songs, dislike their influence on teenagers and broadly suspect them of decadence…
As a sociological concern this may be reasonable enough, and at an emotional level it is very understandable, but it has nothing at all to do with the case.”
William Rees-Mogg’s ‘Times’ editorial is often regarded a crucial deciding factor in the eventual overturning of Keith’s conviction and the reduction of Mick’s sentence to a Conditional Discharge. Brian Jones’s drug arrest back in May ‘67 meanwhile, also saw out it’s end in the courts where he was handed a nine-month prison-term for possession of cannabis and permitting his home to be used by others for smoking it. This was later reduced on appeal to a £1,000 fine and three months probation.
Author, Simon Wells believes the Redlands incident and the ensuing trial was a watershed moment that influenced future attitudes towards drugs in Britain. He says, “it really totally threw up into the air the whole situation of drug laws and soft drug use. The whole debate of drug use – courtesy of what had happened to Mick and Keith – was given a huge platform and a massive profile… When you look at what came off of this trial and imprisonment – it really informed drug laws, soft drug use – and more importantly the understanding of soft narcotic use. It actually led the way for a better understanding of that. So it’s a very important moment in British cultural history, and I dare say, for the rest of the world.” It also perhaps marked a turning point in the Rolling Stones’ history after which, their long-held reputation as Pop’s perennial ‘bad boys’ was elevated to a whole new level. Their manager, Andrew Loog Oldham had certainly played his part in cultivating this image early on in their career, marketing them as the dirty, wicked equivalent to The Beatles and masterminding such headlines as, ’Would You Let Your Daughter Marry a Rolling Stone?’
However, none of his inspired trickery could perhaps compare to the scale of events that unfolded in the wake of the Redlands bust – after all – The Stones had apparently taken on The Establishment… and won. In ‘Life,‘ Keith Richards writes, “in retrospect, the judge actually played into our hands. He managed to turn it into a great PR coup for us, even though I must say I didn’t enjoy Wormwood Scrubs, even for 24 hours. The judge managed to turn me into some folk hero overnight.” Marianne Faithfull certainly shares that view. She states, “before Redlands, Keith had been overshadowed by Mick and Brian, but his defiance on the stand made him a major folk hero. This was the beginning of Keith’s legend. A symbol of dissipation and the demonic. And the amazing thing is that subsequently he actually became that. Satan’s right-hand man with the skull-rings and the demonic imagery. He turned it all to his advantage.”
Keith, and, in particular, Mick, most certainly did attract a significant degree of notoriety in the years that directly followed the Redlands furore for flirting as publicly as they did with “the demonic.” In fact, when both of them were released from prison, they returned to the studio to continue work on the next Rolling Stones album which was subsequently titled, ‘Their Satanic Majesties Request.’ It was their first recording since 1963 not to feature Andrew Loog Oldham’s name in the production credits and by the time it reached the stores in December ‘67, he’d effectively ceased to be their manager. Responsible not only for shaping the band’s public persona but also for convincing Jagger and Richards to start writing their own songs, he’d apparently served his purpose. In his absence, The Stones swaggered into a phase of unparalleled creative brilliance releasing a string of landmark, classic albums between 1968 and 1972. In the second instalment of this three-part retrospective (which is scheduled for posting here some time early 2014), ‘Conspiro Media’ will focus on this period when the band not only hit the peak of it’s powers, but was arguably at it’s most controversial, decadent, and devilishly dangerous.
** IN PART TWO: The Altamont Music Festival tragedy, The downfall of Brian Jones, ‘Sympathy for the Devil,’ Kenneth Anger, and much more.
‘Life’ by Keith Richards… Pages: 153, 183, 220, 234, 236-240, 243-246, 251, 233, 252-253
‘Led Zeppelin. When Giants Walked the Earth’ by Mick Wall… Page 226.
‘Helter Skelter’ by Vincent Bugliosi with Curt Gentry… Pages: 103, 143-144, 635-639.
‘The Ultimate Evil’ by Maury Terry… Pages: 974-975, 1078-1079.